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Material Terminology

Abs: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Class 4-2-2 conforming to ASTM D1788 is a time-proven material. The smooth inner surface and superior resistance to deposit formation makes ABS drain, waste, and vent material ideal for residential and commercial sanitary systems. The residential DWV system can be exposed in service to a wide temperature span. ABS-DWV has proven satisfactory for use from -40F to 180F. These temperature variations can occur due to ambient temperature or the discharge of hot liquids into the system. ABS-DWV is very resistant to a wide variety of materials ranging from sewage to commercial household chemical formulations. ABS-DWV is joined by solvent cementing or threading and can easily be connected to steel, copper, or cast iron through the use of transition fittings.Acetal (POM): The Acetal resins are among the strongest and stiffest of all thermoplastics, and are characterized by good fatigue life, low moisture sensitivity, high resistance to solvents and chemicals, and good electrical properties. Because of these properties, Acetals often compete with nylons for many of the same applications. Acetals may be processed by conventional injection molding and extrusion techniques. The main area of application for Acetal is industrial and mechanical products. Acetal has good wear resistance, good chemical resistance, good dimensional stability, high strength and high stiffness. Some of the disadvantages are poor resistance to acids, subject to UV degradation, flammable, difficult to bond and has high specific gravity.Alloy 20Cb-3: This alloy has higher amounts of nickel and chromium than 300 series stainless steel and with the addition of columbium, this alloy retards stress corrosion cracking and has improved resistance to sulfuric acid. Alloy 20 finds wide use in all phases of chemical processing. ALLOY 20Cb-3 is a registered trademark of Carpenter TechnologyAluminum: Aluminum is a non-ferrous metal, very lightweight, approximately one-third as much as steel. Aluminum is a silvery and ductile member of the poor metal group of chemical elements. Aluminum is found primarily as the ore bauxite. It is a light trivalent metallic element and has good electrical and thermal conductivity, high reflectivity, and resistance to oxidation. Aluminum exhibits excellent atmospheric corrosion resistance, but can be very reactive with other metals. Aluminum is used in many industries to make millions of different products and is very important to the world economy.Aluminum Bronze: Aluminum bronze is the most widely accepted disc material used in butterfly valves; aluminum bronze is heat treatable and has the strength of steel. Formation of an aluminum oxide layer on exposed surfaces makes this metal very corrosion resistant. Not recommended for high pH wet systems.Brass: The term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution is called brass. It is more than 50% copper and from 5 to 20% zinc. Brass comes with good strength. It has excellent high temperature ductility and reasonable cold ductility. Brass has also good conductivity and excellent corrosion resistance. Brass has generally good corrosion resistance. It is susceptible to de-zincification in specific applications; excellent machinability. Primary uses for wrot brass are for ball valve stems and balls, and iron valve stems. A forging grade of brass is used in ball valve bodies and end pieces. Since it also has good bearing properties and low magnetic permeability, it is a ideal material for construction of pumps.Bronze:The term used for alloys of copper and tin is called Bronze. Sometimes, bronze is also found with other elements such as phosphorus, manganese, aluminum, or silicon. It is strong and tough, and has wide range of uses in industry. Some types of brasses are also called bronzes. Sintered bronze is a porous material, which can be impregnated with oil, graphite or PTFE. It is not suitable for heavily loaded applications but is of great use where lubrication is inconvenient. Bronze is one of the first alloys developed in the bronze age is generally accepted as the industry standard for pressure-rated bronze valves and fittings. Bronze has a higher strength than pure copper, is easily cast, has improved machinability, and is very easily joined by soldering or brazing. Bronze is very resistant to pitting corrosion, with general resistance to most chemicals less than that of pure copper.Buna-N: Same as NitrileCPVC: Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Class 23447-B, formerly designated Type IV, Grade 1 conforming to ASTM D-1784, has physical properties at 73F similar to those of PVC, and its chemical resistance is similar to or generally better than that of PVC. CPVC, with a design stress of 2000 psi and maximum service temperature of 210F, has proven to be an excellent material for hot corrosive liquids, hot or cold water distribution, and similar applications above the temperature range of PVC. CPVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading or flanging.Carbon Steel: Carbon steel has very good mechanical properties; good resistance to stress corrosion and sulfides. Carbon steel has high and low temperature strength, is very tough and has excellent fatigue strength. Mainly used in gate, globe, and check valves for applications up to 850F, and in one-, two-, and three-piece ball valves.Copper: Copper is among the most important properties of wrot copper materials are their thermal and electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and ductility. Wrot copper performs well in high temperature applications and is easily joined by soldering or brazing. Wrot copper is exclusively used for fittings.Ductile Iron: Ductile iron has a composition similar to gray iron. Special treatment modifies metallurgical structure, which yields higher mechanical properties; some grades are heat-treated to improve ductility. Ductile iron has the strength properties of steel using similar casting techniques to that of gray iron.EPDM: EPDM is an elastomer made from ethylenepropylene diene monomer. EPDM has good abrasion and tear resistance and offers excellent chemical resistance to a variety of acids and alkalines. It is susceptible to attack by oils and is not recommended for applications involving petroleum oils, strong acids, or strong alkalines. It has exceptionally good weather aging and ozone resistance. It is fairly good with ketones and alcohols and has an excellent temperature range from -20F to 250F.Fluorocarbon (FKM) (Viton) (Fluorel): Fluorocarbon elastomers are inherently compatible with a broad spectrum of chemicals. Because of this extensive chemical compatibility, which spans considerable concentration and temperature ranges, fluorocarbon elastomers have gained wide acceptance as a material of construction for butterfly valve o-rings and seats. Fluorocarbon elastomers can be used in most applications involving mineral acids, salt solutions, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and petroleum oils. They are particularly good in hydrocarbon service. Fluorocarbon elastomers have one of the broadest temperature ranges of any of the elastomers, -20F to 300F; however, they are not suited for steam service. FLUOREL is a registered trademark of the 3M Company.Graphite: Graphite is the packing and seal material of choice for most fire-rated products, primarily because of its high temperature rating of approximately 2000F. Graphite has excellent chemical resistance, can retain compressibility at all temperatures and has a low coefficient of friction. Graphite is not recommended for use in strong oxidizing atmospheres.Gray Iron: Gray iron is an alloy of iron, carbon and silicon; easily cast; good pressure tightness in the as-cast condition. Gray iron has excellent dampening properties and is easily machined. It is standard material for bodies and bonnets of Class 125 and 250 iron body valves. Gray iron has corrosion resistance that is better than steel in certain environments.Hastelloy C: A high nickel-chromium molybdenum alloy, which has outstanding resistance to a wide variety of chemical process environments, including strong oxidizers such as wet chlorine, chlorine gas, and ferric chloride. Hastelloy C is also resistant to nitric, hydrochloric, and sulfuric acids at moderate temperatures. HASTELLOY C is a registered trademark of Haynes InternationalHypalon (CSM): Hypalon has very good resistance to oxidation, ozone, and good flame resistance. It is similar to neoprene except with improved acid resistance where it will resist such oxidizing acids as nitric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acid. Abrasion resistance of Hypalon is excellent, about the equivalent of nitriles. Oil and solvent resistance is somewhat between that of neoprene and nitrile. Salts have little if any effect on Hypalon. Hypalon is not recommended for exposure to concentrated oxidizing acids, esters, ketones, chlorinated, aromatic and nitro hydrocarbons. Hypalon has a normal temperature range of -20F to 200F. HYPALON is a registered trademark of the DuPont CompanyMonel: Is a nickel-copper alloy used primarily as interior trim on butterfly and ball valves and for pump shafts.. One of the most specified materials for corrosion resistance to sea and salt water. Monel is also very resistant to strong caustic solutions. MONEL is a registered trademark of International NickelNatural Rubber: Natural rubber is a mixture of organic compound polyisoprene and small amounts of other organic compounds as well as water. This material is classified as an elastomer (an elastic polymer). It is derived from latex, a milky colloid produced by some plants. The plants are tapped, that is, an incision made into the bark of the tree and the sticky, milk colored latex sap collected and refined into a usable rubber. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications. It is normally very stretchy and flexible and extremely waterproof. Neoprene (CR): Neoprenes were one of the first synthetic rubbers developed. Neoprene is an all-purpose polymer with many desirable characteristics and features high resiliency with low compression set, flame resistance, and is animal and vegetable oil resistant. Neoprene is principally recommended for food and beverage service. Generally, neoprene is not affected by moderate chemicals, fats, greases, and many oils and solvents. Neoprene is attacked by strong oxidizing acids, most chlorinated solvents, esters, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, and hydraulic fluids. Neoprene has a moderate temperature range of -20F to 160F.Nickel-Plated Ductile Iron: Nickel coatings have received wide acceptance for use in chemical processing. To some extent, the hardness of a material is indicative of its resistance to abrasion and wear characteristics. Nickel plating is widely specified as a disc coating for butterfly valves.Nitrile (NBR): (BUNA-N) is a general purpose oil-resistant polymer known as nitrile rubber. Nitrile is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile and has a moderate temperature range of -20F to 180F. Nitrile has good solvent, oil, water, and hydraulic fluid resistance. It displays good compression set, abrasion resistance and tensile strength. Nitrile should not be used in highly polar solvents such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone, nor should it be used in chlorinated hydrocarbons, ozone or nitro hydrocarbons.PP (Polypropylene): Type 1 Polypropylene is a polyolefin, which is lightweight and generally high in chemical resistance. Although Type 1 polypropylene conforming to ASTM D-2146 is slightly lower in physical properties compared to PVC, it is chemically resistant to organic solvents as well as acids and alkalies. Generally, polypropylene should not be used in contact with strong oxidizing acids, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatics. With a design stress of 1000 psi at 73 F, polypropylene has gained wide acceptance where its resistance to sulfur-bearing compounds is particularly useful in salt water disposal lines, crude oil piping, and low pressure gas gathering systems. Polypropylene has also proved to be an excellent material for laboratory and industrial drainage where mixtures of acids, bases, and solvents are involved. Polypropylene is joined by the thermo-seal fusion process, threading or flanging. At 180F, or when threaded, PP should be used for drainage only at a pressure not exceeding 20 psi.PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride): PVC is the most frequently specified of all thermoplastic materials. It has been used successfully for over 30 years in such areas as chemical processing, industrial plating, chilled water distribution, deionized water lines, chemical drainage, and irrigation systems. PVC is characterized by high physical properties and resistance to corrosion and chemical attack by acids, alkalies, salt solutions, and many other chemicals. It is attacked, however, by polar solvents such as ketone, some chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatics. The maximum service temperature of PVC is 140F. With a design stress of 2000 psi, PVC has the highest long-term hydrostatic strength at 73F of any of the major thermoplastics being used for piping systems. PVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading, or flanging.PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride): KEM-TEMP (KYNAR) is a strong, tough and abrasion-resistant fluorocarbon material. It resists distortion and retains most of its strength to 280F. It is chemically resistant to most acids, bases, and organic solvents and is ideally suited for handling wet or dry chlorine, bromine and other halogens. No other solid thermoplastic piping components can approach the combination of strength, chemical resistance and working temperatures of PVDF. PVDF is joined by the thermoseal fusion process, threading or flanging.Peek (Polyetheretherketone): Peek is a high-performance engineered thermoplastic which can be used above the useful range of PTFE. PEEK has physical characteristics approaching some metals (approximately 30K tensile) and has excellent resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic chemicals. PEEK can be used up to 550F and is an excellent choice for heat transfer fluids, steam and hydrocarbon services.Santoprene: Santoprene is a thermoplastic rubber designed to offer chemical resistance equivalent to neoprene. It is resistant to a wide variety of solvents and chemicals. Fluids such as alcohols, ketones, glycols, esters, and aqueous solutions of acids, salts, and bases have little effect upon Santoprene rubber. The elastomer itself is a mixture of EPDM rubber and polypropylene. Santoprene elastomer possesses the same levels of flexibility and durability that are commonly found with natural rubber compounds. Because of the longer life of Santoprene elastomer in both extreme hot and cold environments, the material is often preferred over the use of rubber. Environmental aging resistance, electrical properties, and liquid resistance are about the same as EPDM and it can replace EPDM in certain applications. Silicone Bronze: Silicone bronze has the ductility of copper but much more strength. The corrosion resistance of silicon bronze is equal to or greater than that of copper. Commonly used as stem material in pressure-rated valves, silicon bronze has greater resistance to stress corrosion cracking than common brasses.Stellite: Cobalt base alloy, one of the best all-purpose hard facing alloys. Stellite is very resistant to heat, abrasion, corrosion, impact, galling, oxidation, thermal shock and erosion. Stellite takes a high polish and is used in steel valve seat rings. Normally applied with transfer plasma-arc; Stellite hardness is not affected by heat treatment. STELLITE is a registered trademark of the Cabott CompanyTeflon (PTFE): PolyTetraFluoroEthylene has outstanding resistance to chemical attack by most chemicals and solvents. PTFE has a temperature rating of -20F to 400F in valve applications. PTFE, a self lubricating compound, is used as a seat material in ball valves. TEFLON is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company.Viton: Viton is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. Viton is the most specified fluoroelastomer, well known for its excellent (400F/200C) heat resistance. Viton offers excellent resistance to aggressive fuels and chemicals and has worldwide ISO 9000 and ISO/TS 16949 registration.17-4 PH Stainless Steel: 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL offers high strength and hardness. 17-4 PH withstands corrosive attack better than any of the 400 series stainless steels, and in most conditions its corrosion resistance closely approaches that of 300 series stainless steel. 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL is a registered trademark of Armco Steel Company316 Stainless Steel: An alloy of iron, carbon, nickel, and chromium. A nonmagnetic stainless steel with more ductility than 400SS. 316 stainless steel has very good corrosion resistance to a wide range of environments, is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and is not affected by heat treatment. Most common uses in valves are stem, body and ball materials.400 Series Stainless Steel: 400 SERIES STAINLESS STEEL is an alloy of iron, carbon, and chromium. This stainless is normally magnetic due to its structure and iron content. 400 series stainless steel is resistant to high temperature oxidation and has improved physical and mechanical properties over carbon steel. Most 400 series stainless steels are heat-treatable. The most common applications in valves are for stem material in butterfly valves and backseat bushings and wedges in cast steel valves.

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