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Pool and Spa

Pool and Spa

Hayward Super Pumps, Hayward MaxiFlo Pumps, StaRite Duraglass and Max-E-Pro swimming pool pumps, center & side discharge spa pumps, self draining hot tub pumps and Rule pool cover pumps.The heart of the pool or spa system is the water pump. In a typical pump system, an electric motor spins an impeller inside the pump housing. The impeller drives the water from the various drains through the filter and back out to the water inlets. Just before it flows into the pump, the water passes through a strainer basket that catches leaves and other large debris that might clog up the pump.

Questions & Answers

The easiest way to calculate the TDH in a pool is to read the gauge pressure, in a clean pool filter and multiply the PSI by 2.31. TDH = (PSI x 2.31)
The turnover rate is how many times the pump circulates the entire pool volume through the filter system in a 24 hour period.....
The turnover rate for public commercial pools should be 6 hours. Check your local code requirements.
The turnover rate for residential pools should be 8 to 10 hours. Check your local code requirements.
Desired Flow Rate DFR = Gallons of water in pool / Turn Over Rate x 60 Example: Desired Flow Rate DFR = 20,400 gallons / 8 hrs x 60 = 42.50 gallons per minute (residential pool)
Yes….there is the risk of electrical shock or electrocution.
A pool pump must be installed by a licensed or certified electrician or a qualified pool serviceman in accordance with the National Electrical Code and all applicable local codes and ordinances. Improper installation will create an electrical hazard which could result in death or serious injury to pool users, installers, or others due to electrical shock, and may also cause damage to property.
Yes….always disconnect power to the pool pump at the circuit breaker before servicing the pump. Ensure that the disconnected circuit is locked out or properly tagged so that it cannot be switched on while you are working on the pump. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to serviceman, pool users or others due to electric shock.
Air can enter the circulation system and become pressurized. Pressurized air can cause equipment lids (pump, filter, valves, etc.) to blow off. Always turn off the pump and relieve pressure before opening lids. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to installers, pool users or others and may also cause damage to property
Turn off motor. 2. Relieve pressure in the system. 3. Turn the clamp and lid in a counter-clockwise direction until it stops. 4. Turn the clamp and lid set to remove the clamp and lid. 5. Put the debris from the basket into the trash and rinse out the basket. If the basket is cracked, it should be replaced. 6. Replace the basket. Make sure to align the slot in the basket with the rib in the volute, see Figure 2. 7. Fill the pump pot and volute up to the inlet port with water. 8. Clean the cover, cover O-ring, and sealing surface of the pump pot. Grease the O-ring with Teflon® or silicone. 9. Reinstall the lid. Make sure the lid O-ring is properly placed. 10. Turn the power "ON" at the house circuit breaker. Reset the pool time clock to the correct time. 11. Open the manual air relief valve on top of the filter. 12. Stand clear of the filter. Start the pump. 13. Bleed air from the filter until a steady stream of water comes out. Close the manual air relief valve.
The pump can produce high levels of suction within the suction side of the plumbing system. These high levels of suction can pose a risk if a person comes within the close proximity of the suction openings. A person can be seriously injured by this high level of vacuum or may become trapped and drown. It is absolutely critical that the suction plumbing be installed in accordance with the latest national and local codes for swimming pools.
No… reduce the risk of injury, do not permit children to use this product.
A pool pump is for use with permanently installed pools and may also be used with hot tubs and spas if so marked. Do not use with storable pools.
A permanently installed pool is constructed in or on the ground or in a building such that it cannot be readily disassembled for storage.
A storable pool is constructed so that it may be readily disassembled for storage and reassembled to its original integrity and has a maximum dimension of 18 feet (5.49m) and a maximum wall height of 42 inches .
When the pump is mounted permanently within 5 ft. of the inside walls of a swimming pool, you MUST use a No. 8 AWG or larger conductor to connect to bonding conductor lug. Make sure all electrical breakers and switches are turned off before wiring motor. Make sure that the wiring voltage matches the motor voltage (230v or 115v). If they do not match the motor will burn up. Choose a wire size from the Chart 1. When in doubt use a heavier gauge (larger diameter) wire. Heavier gauge will allow the motor to run cooler and more efficient. Make sure all electrical connections are clean and tight. Cut wires to the appropriate length so they don't overlap or touch when connected to the terminal board. Have a qualified and competent contractor do all the required work according to all applicable codes and ordinances.
When pump is mounted permanently within 5 ft. of the inside walls of a swimming pool a No. 8 AWG or larger conductor must be used to connect to bonding conductor lug.
The pump strainer filter, sometimes referred to as the “hair and lint Pot “, is the unit in front of the volute. Inside the chamber is the basket which must be kept clean of leaves and debris at all times. View basket through the ‘See through Lid’ to inspect for leaves and debris.
Regardless of the length of time between filter cleaning, it is most important to visually inspect the strainer basket at least once a week. A dirty basket will reduce the efficiency of the filter and heater and also put an abnormal stress on the pump motor which would result in a costly repair bill.
DO NOT open the strainer pot if pump fails to prime or if pump has been operating without water in the strainer pot. Pumps operated in these circumstances may experience a buildup of vapor pressure and may contain scalding hot water. Opening the pump may cause serious personal injury. In order to avoid the possibility of personal injury, make sure the suction and discharge valves are open and strainer pot temperature is cool to touch, then open with extreme caution.
When any part of the circulating system (e.g., Lock Ring, Pump, Filter, Valves, etc.) is serviced, air can enter the system and become pressurized. Pressurized air can cause the lid to blow off which can result in server injury, death, or property damage. To avoid this potential hazard, follow these instructions. Open the manual air relief valve on top of the filter. Stand clear of the filter. Start the pump. Bleed air from the filter until a steady stream of water comes out. Close the manual air relief valve.
If the air temperature drops below 35° F., the water in the pump can freeze and cause damage. Freeze damage is not warrantable. To prevent freeze damage follow the procedures listed below: Shut off electrical power for the pump at the house circuit breaker. Drain the water out of the pump case by removing the two thumb-twist drain plugs from the case. Store the plugs in the pump basket. Cover the motor to protect it from severe rain, snow and ice. Do not wrap the motor in plastic. It will cause condensation and rust on the inside of the motor.
Protect from heat, protect against dirt and protect from moisture.
Shade the motor from the sun; Any enclosure must be well ventilated to prevent overheating; Provide ample cross ventilation.
Protect from any foreign matter or splashing water; Do not store (or spill) pool chemicals near the motor; Avoid sweeping or stirring up dust near the motor while it is operating; If a motor has been damaged by dirt it voids the motor warranty.
Protect from splashing pool water and lawn sprinklers; Protect from the weather; If a motor has become wet - let it dry before operating. Do not allow the pump to operate if it has been flooded; If a motor has been damaged by water it voids the motor warranty.
These pumps must have a vacuum chamber, commonly known as pump housing. The pump housing must be filled with water in order for any pump to create a vacuum, resulting in your pump pulling the water out of your pool or spa. The pump housing will remain full of water while the pump is on, and will remain full or partially full of water when the pump is shut off. When the pump turns on, the motor will begin to rotate on high speed (dual speed pumps rotate at the preselected speed). The motor drives the pump impeller, located inside the pumps center portion at the opposite end, away from the electrical switch portion of the motor. While the motor is rotating, the tips of the impeller are sealed hydraulically inside of the pump diffuser, this allows self-priming to occur.
Most residential, in-ground swimming pool pump are self-priming centrifugal pumps. Self priming does not mean that they will prime themselves, it means that once primed they will re-prime automatically if installed and maintained correctly. .
The word "prime" when referring to pool pumps is the act of filling the influent line with water so that the pump, once started, will force any air in the lines out the discharge line. If a pool pump fails to prime or does not prime completely, air pressure will keep the pool pump and the rest of your filtration and plumbing from working correctly. All in-ground pool pumps must be self-priming as the pump usually sits above water level.
Self-priming can only occur when the pump has a diffuser. Some pumps have a separate diffuser, others have the diffuser molded into the pump's cover, refer to the Owner’s Manual.
The diffuser helps to eliminate any air coming into the pump housing, suction piping, or hoses on above ground pools. When all the air is being removed from the system, you will notice the bubbles returning to the pool through the return fittings. The impeller acts to convert water velocity into water pressure, which is registered on your filter pressure gauge. The actual Gallons per Minute (GPM) vary with the type of pump and the horsepower. Check your Owner's Manual for more information.
Self-priming pumps are very dependable and simple in design. They require a sufficient supply of water from the pool or spa, and no air in the suction lines. Air could come from a loose strainer cover, a leak in any valve, a defective mechanical seal, a pin hole in any suction line or any crack or loose connections in the underground piping.
DO NOT run the pump dry. If the pump is run dry, the mechanical seal will be damaged and the pump will start leaking. If this occurs, the damaged seal must be replaced. ALWAYS maintain proper water level in your pool (half way up skimmer opening). If the water level falls below the skimmer opening, the pump will draw air through the skimmer, losing the prime and causing the pump to run dry, resulting in a damaged seal.
The pump strainer pot must be filled with water before the pump is initially started. Follow these steps to prime the pump: Remove the pump lid plastic clamp. Remove the pump lid; Fill the pump strainer pot with water; Reassemble the pump cover and plastic clamp onto the strainer pot. The pump is now ready to prime; Open the air release valve on the filter, and stand clear of the filter; Turn on the switch or time clock; When water comes out of the air release valve, close the valve. The system should now be free of air and recirculating water to and from the pool. The pump should not run longer than 5 minutes before priming is achieved. For 2-speed pumps should run on high-speed for priming.
A motor that is nameplated with its real service factor. Example a 1 HP motor with a 1.65 service factor What is a motor service factor? The service factor is a “safety” factor that indicates how much more a motor can be loaded past its nameplate horse power rating…Example a 1 HP motor with a 1.65 service factor can be loaded to 1 X 1.65) to 1.65 service factor.
They are marketing terms used for down-rated motors. Example a full rated 1 HP motor with a 1.65 service factor is sold as an “up-rated” 1-1/2 HP motor with a 1.15 service factor, giving the illusion of a better price deal.
Yes…..using an undersized pump means that it may not turnover the water properly, possibly causing poor filtration. Example if you buy a an “up-rated” 1-1/2 HP motor with a 1.15 service factor you are really buying a 1 HP motor pump
If you are purchasing a new or replacement pump, you should first determine what the horsepower and service factor of the pump that you are replacing is and base your decision on that. Consider also the frame size and type of the motor as well.
Pump motors damaged by flooding are not covered by warranty. Your pump should be kept free of dirt and also located where it can be protected from flooding during heavy rain fall. If your pump motor becomes flooded you will probably have to replace it.
Check the power, breakers, switches, etc. If you have a timer on the system, make sure it is working properly.
This may be caused by insufficient power due to an undersized or long power wires. All wires should be according to code requirements and the motor manufacturer's recommendations. Your local power supply may be suffering a power drop. For example: during a heat wave when every possible cooling appliance has been turned on in your area, your pump may be starved of the power it requires to run cool. Restart your pump when the weather cools to confirm that the problem is in the motor. Your pump has a thermal overload, which will shut the motor off when it gets too hot, and it will restart itself once it has cooled down.
This may be normal since they produce water flow. The motor has a cooling fan internally which can be heard to a certain degree. It is advisable not to locate any pool pump under someone's bedroom window. The pump's sounds can be caused by vibrations between the pump base and the base or concrete pad it is sitting on. A piece of old carpet or rubber between the pump and base may quiet the sound. The bearings may be noisy due to normal wear. Feeding high concentrations of chemical tablets in the skimmer will cause corrosive damage to the pump seal, which can leak and damage the motor bearings. It is recommended to get the bearings replaced by a qualified motor repair shop. Also, cavitation due to improper suction line sizing, leaks in the piping, a blockage in the suction line, or a low level of pool water will cause higher than normal sound.
Your motor is wired to the wrong voltage. Most in-ground pumps can be connected to either 115 or 230v. Shut off the pump at once and have your electrician check the problem and correct.
The strainer cover is loose or the gasket is damaged; check and replace the cover or gasket if necessary. The pool water level may be too low allowing air to mix with water through the skimmer, you will need to raise the water level. The skimmer weir, sometimes called the flapper, may be stuck in the up position, allowing air to mix with water in the suction line. There can be a leak at any connection in the suction piping or a leak inside any suction side valve at the stem o-ring. Also, there may be a leak in the underground piping, caused by a loose joint, or termites/ants that will chew into some flexible piping.
Many pool owners use this term when in fact they really mean they have lots of pressure but their flow is very low. This is caused by a dirty or clogged filter, a blocked return line, or a valve that is shut off or partially shut on the return piping. The pump's impeller may be clogged with debris. Check by first shutting off the pump. Remove the basket and check the impeller by putting your finger into the suction hole found in the pump strainer housing. If the seal is broken, replace it. For seal change instructions on Hayward pumps, refer to your Owner's Manual that is supplied with your pump or contact your local pool dealer.
Swimming pool pumps do require energy, the bigger the pump the more energy consumed. Also, some filtration systems may require up to 24-hours to clean your pool. Most pools should stay clean with 8 - 12 hours of filtering. An upgrade to an energy efficient pump and improved filtration can cut energy consumption 15 percent or more
You may have a suction leak if there is not enough water in the strainer housing. You can have a leak at any joint especially at the first fitting that is screwed into the strainer housing. The strainer cover may be loose or an o-ring under the strainer housing cover may be worn. You may have clogged suction piping, which is caused by items that get sucked through the skimmer into the piping, usually lodging at any turn in the piping. The pump may be located above the pool water level or may be too far from the pool, requiring longer periods to prime
Sometimes when the pump starts, a small stone or debris by-passes the pump basket it will break the impeller.
The pump may be located above the pool water level or may be too far from the pool, requiring longer periods to prime. The ideal situation is to locate the pump at or just slightly above water level, 8 feet maximum, and as close to the pool as possible, approximately 10 - 20 feet maximum.
A good test to locate an Air Leak, is to use shaving cream (not gel). Spread the shaving cream over the suction side joints and fittings with the pump on. The pump will try to suck the foam into the pipe because it has less resistance or mass then the water. At the air leak you will start to see the layer of foam dimple as it gets sucked into the system revealing where the leak is. At this point you will know what part needs to be repaired or replaced.
Pool pumps are supposed to be air tight. With a clear pump lid, you "should" see no air in the pump basket. This is rarely the case however, small air leaks are common. When the air leak gets too large, it will create problems with circulation or keeping the pump primed. The most common causes of a pump air leak include bad thread sealant where the pipe enters the pump, a leaky valve stem on one of the suction valves or a break in the plumbing. Other sources of air leaking into the system include a loose or old pump lid or pump lid o-ring or an ill fitting pump drain plug. All air leaks originate BEFORE the impeller on the suction side of the pump.
Priming problems are always on the suction side of the pump. Check to be sure that the pool water level is mid-skimmer level and no vortex is being created. If the water level is too low, air will be drafted into the suction line. Any time you have air in the suction line a pool pump will not maintain a prime. Check that the skimmer weirs are not stuck in an up position, blocking the entrance to the skimmer. Check the suction lines and pool valves to the pool pump. Make sure valve lids are all tight, and pump drain plugs have the proper o-ring and a good water tight seal. Check the pump lid for a proper seal. Make sure all pool pump lid o-rings and pump gaskets are in good working condition. Replace anyone that shows sign of dry-rot.
Often a pump will leak or spray water on the discharge side of the pump or around the volute. Since the water leaves the impeller under pressure it will always find the path of least resistance. If there is crack in the pool pump housing or a bad seal, water will leak from these areas. When water is pouring out behind seal plate where the shaft enters the housing it indicates that there is a worn mechanical pump seal and it needs to be replaced. Leaks on the discharge side of the pump’s piping are usually caused by cracked of heat-shrunk schedule 40 PVC fitting. Always use at least a 6 inch long schedule 80 nipple on both the suction side and pressure side of the pool pump.
One common problem is that the pool pump impeller is clogged or broken. Blades of grass, tree berries, dog hair, plastic pieces or other foreign debris are often found trapped in the impeller vanes. Another common problem is an obstructed or collapsed suction line. Collapsed lines need to be re-plumbed and are usually associated with poly piping or flex line. The line you might need to be pressurized to dislodge the obstruction.
The problem could be in the power source or in the pump motor itself.
To verify that electricity is reaching the pump check that all the breakers, time-clocks and automated controls are correctly set in the on position. Note if any breaker is as you turn on power or if the motor is humming. You can access the terminals by removing the motor end-cap, check if circuit boards and wiring are in good condition and confirmed that the power is being delivered to the motor. Contact a qualified and competent contractor to do all electrical work.
The pump motor could be seized, the capacitor in the pump motor could be bad or a wire in the rear of the motor could be disconnected or otherwise shorted. Take the pump and motor to a local electric motor shop.

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